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Insurgency in the Punjab: Khalistan Movement

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Insurgency in Punjab, in late 1970s, was the consequence of venal politics between the two main political parties in the state, the Akali Dal Party and Congress Party. They indulged in the vote bank politics and failed to notice that Sikh militants were occupying the void created by them. Both party played the communal card and projected the Sikh extremism as their political ideology. However, in this power struggle they lost the way and extremists were soon on the driving seat.
Origin of the Insurgency
The seed of the insurgency was sown during Sikh Nationalism that predates the partition of Punjab after India's independence in 1947. But it was not the primary cause of insurgency. Insurgency in the Punjab was the result of power struggle between two main political parties. The ideology and agendas used in this power struggle provided a way for extremists to acquire the political space.
The tussle for power took a religious turn as the Akali Dal decided to play the communal card b…

Gujjars and Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir

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The Gujjars and Bakarwals are the cattle rearing transhumants (people practicing seasonal migration) who oscillate to the different altitudes of mountain with their herds in the valleys of Jammu and Kashmir. However, they migrate in the pasture of Great Himalaya but more localised in the JK. Their habitat is in the hill terrain of North-Western Himalayas. Scholars have different views regarding their origin, some are of the view that they are the pastoral nomads of Central Asia, while some consider them the descendant of the Kushan and the Yuchi tribes of Eastern Tatars (Russia). Some scholars hold the view that they are of Indian origin. Recent archeological, linguistic and geographical evidences trace their migration from a territory between Black Sea and Caspian Sea and proved them the descendant of Gurjis. It is believed that originally residing in Gujarat, part of the tribe migrated towards JK after the outbreak of a serious famine in Gujarat and Rajasthan.

What is Civil Society and how it Evolves

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Civil society is a nucleus of independent political activity, crucial in countering the tyranny of the state. It represent the domain of society where ideas are publicly exchanged, associations are freely formed, interests are organised, economic activity functions autonomously and legally protected rights and institutions of everyday life. Civil Society is a non-state sphere of political life. As it is an essential component of democracy, civil society is generally absent or rather weak and ineffectual in authoritarian, militarist and non democratic countries. It provides a buffer between the individuals and the state. Civil society is the site where actions of state can be discussed, influenced and resisted.

Salwa Judum - Potential Threat

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Different institutions have provided different explanation of Salwa Judum, Government define it peace forces of villagers and local resistance groups while other organization like civil society consider it armed vigilante groups, killing those who disagree with them. What is salwa judum then, However as they operate outside law with assurance of state protection, they indulge in illegal activities. Salwa Judum are the armed groups of villagers, who fought against the Maoists and are well supported by the government, they are like non government organization, not accountable for any of their action and are well funded by government.
Insurgency in the Northeastern states first initiated the tactic of strategic hamletting. It involves rehabilitation of the remote villages to the designated camps, cutting the supply lines of the rebels, and launching the fresh strikes in their strongholds. As no villagers are present in the villages, all those which are left behind can be identified …

Origin of Monsoon in India and its impact

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The origin of word monsoon is from the Arabic Mausim, meaning "season". The name originally referred to wind reversals in the Arabian Sea, but has come to mean the whole range of phenomena associated with annual weather cycles in Tropical and Sub-tropical Asia, Australia and Africa. Here we concentrate on the South Asian monsoon, the great weather system that dominates life on the subcontinent.

Origin of the Monsoon Lets first take a look at the physical and scientific aspects of monsoon."Monsoons are seasonal winds which reverse their direction of flow with the change of seasons". Now why these winds changes their direction, there are many reasons attributed to this reversal but the oldest and the most significant is the differential heating (given below) of land and air. In summer, moist air is carried northwards from the Indian Ocean over the Indian subcontinent, bringing rains, however in winter, cool, dry air is carried southwards from sub…

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