Push and pull factors operating for the emergence of slums in India

With the increasing urban population, the number of cities having population over one million has increased from 23 to 25 in just one decade. Among them the greater Mumbai is largest one with 16.4 million people. Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Banglore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat and Kanpur have more than two million populations. Slum growth is one of the major feature of India cities. 26 states and  Union Territories have reported the presence of slums in 607 towns and cities in the country. According to a survey total slum population is about 23% of urban population. The largest slum population is in Greater Munbai which accommodates about 6% of the total population of Maharashtra, which registered a slum population of 10.64 million.
Development of slums in cities in India is supported by push factors operating at village sides and pull factors operating at metropolitan areas. Even after the 60 year of independence conditions of rural people have not improved and villages are underdeveloped. Lack of employment, poor amenities and poor development are the push factors operating in the village areas which is forcing people to leave their residence to get a job for survival (rural migration-major cause of slum growth). As a result large number of migration taking place all over country from rural areas to the metropolitan areas which are the center of employment, economic development, better life amenities etc. These facilities of metropolitan cities is acting as a pull factors for rural people. This migration of people is causing rapid urbanization in conjunction with industrialization and finally resulting in the growth of slums. These slums are affecting the society and environment of urban areas adversely (harmful impact of slums).
These slums are one or two room hutments mostly occupying government and public lands. These house in slums are made up of mud or brick walls, low roofs mostly covered with corrugated sheets, tins, bamboo mats, polythene, etc. They are devoid of windows and any source of ventilation, public utility services and are in extremely unhygienic conditions. These slums are totally isolated from rest of the urban society and exhibit pathological social symptoms like, drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism and other deviant behavior.
The slums in India are now a different culture. The slum dwellers are trapped in a complex situation, they can not come out of this mess as they do not have any other option, only to live there, and new slum generation which is born in these slums is reluctant to come out of it, they are happy with the way they are. Tell them to study and they will say why to study when we are earning thousand rupees by begging. This is a kind of mental problem, their mentality have been trapped, they have become lazy and don't want to do hard work. They have developed various shortcuts to earn money and maximum of them are illegal. It needs a great social movement to improve the condition of these people and it needs strong political will power, proper planning and its implementation to cure this culture. There mentality should be cured. They don't want to come out of the mess but we will have to take them out.


  1. This is horribly inaccurate, slums actually have a very low rate of crime, and as for the matter of people not wanting to work or get an education is a load of crap as well. Most the children that live in slums will go to school and get an education and a percentage of them go on to become doctors, lawyers etc. So please think about what you post before you do and check that its all correct.

    1. I dont know from where you got this information but I have written what i have seen. I am sorry if any of the above information offended you. But its natural to have crimes in the society which is illiterate. If one is habitual of making money by begging and looting, they will surely be reluctant towards study, and regarding being doctors, lawyers, etc. some people do get educated but they are few of them.

    2. Nice job, really helped with my study's about Delhi

  2. Some slums might be like this however not all. Dharavi is one of the biggest slums in the world, in India and it has a very low crime rate. People also work hard at recycle factories.

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