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Push and pull factors operating for the emergence of slums in India

With the increasing urban population, the number of cities having population over one million has increased from 23 to 25 in just one decade. Among them the greater Mumbai is largest one with 16.4 million people. Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Banglore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat and Kanpur have more than two million populations. Slum growth is one of the major feature of India cities. 26 states and  Union Territories have reported the presence of slums in 607 towns and cities in the country. According to a survey total slum population is about 23% of urban population. The largest slum population is in Greater Munbai which accommodates about 6% of the total population of Maharashtra, which registered a slum population of 10.64 million. Development of slums in cities in India is supported by push factors operating at village sides and pull factors operating at metropolitan areas. Even after the 60 year of independence conditions of rural people have not improved and villages are unde…

6 Factors responsible for the growth of slums in India

A slum, commonly called Jhuggi-Jhopris in India, is residential area where the dwellings by reason of over-crowding, lack of ventilation, light and sanitary facilities, unhygienic conditions and other set of factors are detrimental to safety, health and morals. According to the estimates of Town and Country Planning Organization, about 21.2% of urban population lives in slums. This proportion is even higher in metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai, etc. First question which arises here is that how slums developed, what are the requirements for their development. There are varieties of factors which helps in the formation of slums.
 Growth rate of population (Urbanization) First of all the growth rate of Indian population is very high and this growth rate is much higher in the urban areas because of the migration of large number of people from rural to urban. Due to the poverty, unemployment, lack of other amenities and more importantly to elevate their status, people migrate to ur…

Harmful impacts of slums on society and people living in it

The rapid urbanization in conjugation with  industrialization has resulted in the growth of slums. As we have discussed in previous post that how the shortage of land for housing, the high prices of land beyond the reach of urban poor and a large influx of rural migrants to the cities fuelling the development of slums. These slums give rise to many problems in the urban areas. The major problems of slums in India are as follows:- Shortage of space: About 77.6% of the urban dwellers in Mumbai reside in one room and lakhs of them sleeps on the footpath. About 62% of the households of the metropolis reside in these slums. This give rise to the problem of shortage of space.
Prone to natural and man-made hazards: As in slums, houses are crammed in a little space, they are often prone to dangerous hazards like floods, water logging, fire etc. Extent of hazard is increased because of high population density. The slum areas of Delhi specially Yamuna-Pushta are affected by flood-water of Yamuna…

What Kishtwar violence in Jammu and Kashmir indicates

Curfew has been employed in the Kishtwar and government has kept up its firm blackout on all news emanting from Kishtwar town. State home minster Sajjad Kichloo has resigned taking the responsibility of riots. Peoples are continuously defying curfew and clashes are taking place. Both communities- Hindu and Muslims are involved, Muslims are eanraged because their id prayers and procession were allegedly disrupted by a couple of Hindu youth, and Hindus are angry because most of shops burnt are theirs. People says that more than hundred shops have been burnt, however, according to police, 48 shops were burnt, three of which belongs to Muslims.
Any violent actvity in the valley increases the concern of national integrity and much when it happens immediately after the intrusion of Pakistani army in our territory. Centre might be denying the involvement of external agents in initiating the riots but, killing of five jawans at chakna da bagh and continuous violention of cease fire from Paki…

How are urban areas defined in India according to the census of India

The term 'urban' is related to town or cities. Unlike in rural areas here majority of the employed inhabitants are engaged in non agricultural activities and it is endowed with large nucleated settlements and industries. Urban areas may be defined by national governments based on their own criteria for example size, population density, occupation of people and type of local government. The multidimensional character of urban areas posed hindrance in giving a precise definition for them. The census of India until 1951 defined an urban settlement based on municipalities and the population of area. The 1961 census adopted a strict definition which is modified in 1971 census to treat all places satisfying the following conditions as towns:-

All municipal corporations, municipal boards, cantonments and notified areas.All localities though not in themselves local bodies but forming part of a city or town agglomeration.Other places satisfying all three following conditions.Population…

10 challenges faced by agriculture in India

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Indian agriculture is developing day by day, despite of its decline in country's GDP share, the advancement and development in agriculture sector could not be ignored. But with this improvement, Indian agriculture is also facing varieties of problems, some of which are natural while others are man made. Some of these problems are discussed below:-

Small and fragmented land holdings
The abundance of net sown area in India is divided into economically non-viable small and scattered land holdings. Our traditional inheritance laws are wholly responsible for the division of agricultural area into small fragment. The land belongs to father is equally distributed among his sons, and this process goes on like this. The distribution of land is not a consolidate one, but its nature is fragmented. Different holdings will have different features like its fertility, composition, texture and many other factors which determine the production of crop in that particular area. If there are four tr…

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